Micallef R, Kayyali R. A Systematic Review of Models Used and Preferences for Continuing Education and Continuing Professional Development of Pharmacists. Pharmacy (Basel). 2019;7(4):154.

The primary aim of this study was to identify the formats or models used by pharmacists for CE and CPD globally. The authors conducted a systematic review of publications from 1995 until March 2018. Eighteen papers were included from 2004 to 2014.  While a variety of formats and models were used, CPD showed increased practice outcomes versus CE, with increased reflection and application of learning into practice.