Driesen A, Verbeke K, Simoens S, Laekman G. International Trends in Lifelong Learning for Pharmacists. Am J Pharm Educ. 2007; 71 (3): Article 52.

The lifelong learning requirements, control (regulation), and consequence of non-compliance are presented for The Netherlands, Great Britain, France, Germany, Australia, New Zealand, Ontario, and the United States in a chart format. Great Britain is the only country with an exclusive CPD requirement. Australia and New Zealand both have CE and CPD options available. CE is the exclusive system in The Netherlands, France, Germany, and the US. Finally Ontario, Canada represents an example of CPD and practice review as a system of competency assessment. The authors also discuss the slow movement of CPD into many locations, despite the evidence behind the insufficient delivery of traditional CE. Finally, the authors comment on the challenges of implementing CPD, such as complexity, adjustment to traditions within a country/culture, and environmental influences.