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Standards and Guidelines for Accreditation of
Professional Degree Programs in Pharmacy, 8th Edition

January 1995
 
Organization and Administration
Faculty and Staff
Physical, Clinical, Library and Financial Resources
Curriculum and Degrees
Student Affairs


ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION

 
Standard No. 1. University Organizational Structure


The university is expected to assure that the college or school of pharmacy maintains a reasonable degree of autonomy for development of its professional programs, as defined by its dean and faculty, within the framework of the university's aims and objectives.

Guideline 1.1
Professional programs in pharmacy are those leading to the baccalaureate in pharmacy and the doctor of pharmacy degrees. Within institutional policies, responsibility and authority for administration of these professional programs, including curriculum development and delivery, should be vested in the college or school of pharmacy to assure appropriate programmatic autonomy.

Standard No. 2. University Organization and Administration for Education and Service Activities

Organizational structure and administrative patterns in university or university-affiliated institutions should promote integrated educational and service activities, provide a clearly understood relationship between service and educational units, provide the necessary blend of educational and patient care activities, and assure that appropriate authority for the control and supervision of academic activities is vested in the college or school of pharmacy.

Standard No. 3. University Support for Interdisciplinary Health Science Education

The university is expected to assist the college or school of pharmacy in developing suitable relationships with other health professions for instruction, research and patient care. If other health professions are present within the university, such relationships should be fostered within university facilities. Additional relationships, as needed, should be secured through affiliations with agencies external to the university.

Guideline 3.1
Interprofessional health science education should be encouraged through administrative organization which will permit access to and facilitate utilization of common physical and clinical facilities. The professional programs in pharmacy should benefit from association with other health science programs, including opportunities for shared clinical experiences.

Guideline 3.2
The university is expected to develop and to support a suitable consortium of the health profession colleges and/or schools present within the university. In those instances where a limited number or an absence of other health professional colleges or schools exist within the university, an advisory board or other liaison mechanism should be established to facilitate interprofessional relationships.

Standard No. 4. University Financial and Physical Resource Support

The university is expected to provide adequate financial and physical resources to assure stability of the college or school of pharmacy and to enable it to meet its programmatic responsibilities.

Standard No. 5. College or School of Pharmacy Mission and Goals

The college or school of pharmacy should generate a comprehensive statement of its mission and goals in the areas of education, research and service. The mission and goals of a college or school should demonstrate consistency with current and projected educational needs for pharmacy as a unique profession in the health science field. Goals should be compatible with the general and specific objectives of pharmaceutical education in keeping with accepted standards of practice as reflected in the accreditation standards.

Guideline 5.1
In establishing the mission and goals, a college or school of pharmacy should draw upon contemporary practice standards and on long-range expectations for evolution of the profession.

Guideline 5.2
Professional programs of a college or school of pharmacy will be considered in the light of their own stated purposes so long as those purposes demonstrably fall within, and adequately reflect, the definitions of professional programs established by the accreditation standards.

Guideline 5.3
Departments, divisions, or other subunits of the college or school which may exist should have their own goals and objectives, and demonstrate an understanding of how these articulate with collegiate and programmatic goals and objectives.

Guideline 5.4
A systematic planning process should be employed to facilitate achievement of the college's or school's mission, goals and objectives.

Standard No. 6. College or School Organization and Administration

The college or school of pharmacy should be organized in a manner which facilitates achievement of its goals and effectively utilizes its resources. The organization and administration of the college or school should provide for a dean. The organizational and administrative structure should clearly identify lines of authority and responsibility, and should assure a framework which fosters adequate communications. There should be mutual understanding and agreement among the faculty, the dean, and other administrators on the goals of the college or school and evidence of acceptance of their responsibilities in achieving these goals.

Guideline 6.1
A well-ordered plan should exist for the effective utilization of financial resources available to the college or school.

Guideline 6.2
There should be evidence that facilities, student services and other administrative support for the professional programs are available and organized to accomplish stated goals.

Guideline 6.3
Criteria for faculty evaluation and a policy for their application should be established which takes into account the diverse responsibilities of a health profession faculty. Clearly delineated and mutually agreed upon faculty performance criteria should be in place for tenure and promotion of all eligible faculty.

Guideline 6.4
Administrative policy should be established which supports faculty development. Enrichment opportunities should be available to all faculty. Attendance at appropriate meetings and seminars should be encouraged.

Standard No. 7. Dean and Faculty Responsibilities

The dean and faculty are responsible for recruitment and retention of a competent faculty and staff; development, implementation and continuation of the instructional, research and service programs of the college or school; initiation, implementation and continuation of programs for the recruitment and admission of qualified students; establishment and implementation of standards for academic performance and progression; and maintenance of the visibility of pharmacy and the college or school of pharmacy both on campus and to external constituencies. The dean of the college or school is expected to demonstrate positive, constructive academic and professional leadership and to effectively unite and inspire faculty and students toward achievement.
 
The faculty should meet with suitable regularity, and a committee structure should exist to assist in the work of the college or school. Minutes of faculty meetings and written records of committee actions should be permanently maintained for future reference.

The dean and faculty are expected to contribute to the university by serving on university committees in a manner consistent with the need of the institution in general and the welfare of the college or school in particular.

Guideline 7.1
Among indices of positive and constructive leadership of the dean are scientific and scholarly achievements, participation in the affairs of pharmaceutical organizations, interest in a progressive educational process, understanding of the problems of pharmacists and other health professionals, cooperation with other university officials and leaders in the profession, and an awareness of directions in health care.

Guideline 7.2
In instances where the dean of the college or school of pharmacy is assigned other administrative responsibilities within the university, it is expected that arrangements for administrative support to the office of the dean will be made so as to assure effective administration of the affairs of the college or school of pharmacy.

Guideline 7.3
Where the faculty is organized into departments, divisions, or other sub-units of the College or School, heads or chairs should be viewed as being critical to effective implementation of departmental/divisional goals, and, in concert with the Dean, play a leadership role in the improvement and development of the professional program. A major responsibility of heads or chairs should be the development of faculty with provision of guidance and counseling in accord with institution-based as well as departmental/divisional and individualized objectives.

FACULTY AND STAFF
 
Standard No. 8. Essentials for Faculty and Staff

The factor of greatest significance in assurance of educational quality in a college or school of pharmacy is the excellence of its faculty and staff. In addition to an adequate number of faculty, essential faculty qualities include appropriate educational background and experience, good attitude and morale, effective teaching skills, and commitment to scholarship and service. Faculty should be committed to the goals and objectives of the college or school. Faculty whose responsibilities include practice should be licensed pharmacists satisfying all professional licensure requirements which apply to their practice sites.

Guideline 8.1
The faculty should possess professional and academic expertise with suitable backgrounds in educational techniques and administration, commensurate with their ranks and responsibilities.

Guideline 8.2
Faculty are expected to be involved, on a continuing basis, in the improvement in their areas of teaching, service and scholarly activities.

Guideline 8.3
Faculty and professional staff should be selected in accordance with a policy which assures nondiscrimination on the basis of race, religion, sex, and national origin.

Guideline 8.4
Faculty should be evaluated for quality and effectiveness utilizing academically accepted indicia appropriate to the defined responsibilities of individual faculty members. Among these are:

Guideline 8.4.1: ability, skills and enthusiasm for teaching.

Guideline 8.4.2: scholarship demonstrated by productive research, contributions to the scientific and professional literature, or other evidence of scholarly accomplishment such as the publication of books and reviews.

Guideline 8.4.3: success in securing extramural funding in support of research activities.

Guideline 8.4.4: research and development in pharmaceutical education.

Guideline 8.4.5: attendance at professional and scholarly meetings as well as participation in and contributions to seminars, workshops, colloquia or short courses in the field of expertise.

Guideline 8.4.6: effective behavioral and role modeling for students.

Guideline 8.47: participation in the life of the college or school and the university, as evidenced by committee service, chairmanship of committees, and involvement in campus governing bodies.

Guideline 8.4.8: participation in the advancement of the profession as evidenced by membership in appropriate organizations, attendance at meetings, presentation of papers at such meetings, service on committees or as an officer of professional organizations, conducting continuing education programs, and other evidence of service to the profession.

Guideline 8.5
Volunteer clinical faculty and preceptors should be exemplary role-model practitioners, and should reflect a broad spectrum of pharmacy practice settings. Criteria for appointment, retention and promotion should be established in accord with policies of the university and college or school, and should be based upon teaching performance and practice characteristics. Such faculty are expected to effectively address the intended educational objectives and outcomes set forth for the clinical or practice experience programs.

Standard No. 9. Critical Nucleus of Faculty and Staff

Faculty and staff resources should meet the comprehensive needs of a health profession college or school including its curriculum, research and scholarly activities, as well as its professional and public service responsibilities. A critical nucleus of full-time faculty in all areas of the professional curriculum is essential to quality pharmaceutical education. This nucleus may be complemented by part-time faculty. Clerkship and externship instruction requires significant student/preceptor interaction and thus a low student/preceptor ratio is expected.

Guideline 9.1
Adjunct, part-time, salaried and non-salaried faculty, pharmacy residents, and graduate/teaching assistants may assist in the educational program; however, with the exception of externship, these faculty/staff resources should not be the primary resource for teaching basic didactic courses or clerkships.
 
Guideline 9.2
The student/preceptor ratio for clerkships should be adequate to provide individualized guidance and evaluative supervision by pharmacy faculty. A major factor to be considered to assure this goal is the number of students each faculty member is assigned during a given clerkship rotation.

Standard No. 10. Self-Evaluation of Faculty

Faculty should continually evaluate their individual and collective performance as well as engage in programmatic evaluation. It is essential that faculty evaluate the teaching, scholarship and service activities of their colleagues. Faculty should conduct studies aimed at improvement of admission and counseling procedures, participate in curriculum surveys, study examination methods and results, make systematic efforts to obtain suggestions for programmatic improvements, seize other opportunities to strengthen the program, and devise ways and means for measuring programmatic outcomes.

Standard No. 11. Supportive Personnel

Adequate supportive personnel including administrators, secretaries, stockroom attendants, laboratory technicians, and maintenance personnel are required for effective operation of a college or school of pharmacy. Supportive programs, including drug information centers and clinical pharmacokinetics laboratories, should be adequately staffed with qualified personnel. Teaching assistants should be chosen in accordance with a well-defined policy; they should be trained properly for their teaching and supportive roles in the professional program and should be adequately supervised in fulfilling their responsibilities to students.
 
PHYSICAL, CLINICAL, LIBRARY AND FINANCIAL RESOURCES
 
Standard No. 12. Physical Facilities

Physical resources are necessary to achieve the goals of the college or school of pharmacy. Essential physical facilities include administrative and faculty offices, teaching and research laboratories, lecture rooms, conference rooms, student activities areas, and other service and programmatic support areas. Physical facilities should be adequately equipped, well-maintained, and provide a reasonably attractive environment for learning.

Guideline 12.1
Teaching facilities, such as classrooms, conference and seminar rooms, as well as general and specialized laboratories, should be sufficient in number and adequate in size to accommodate the student body. Teaching facilities should be properly equipped for the types of programs and curricula offered by the college and school. Research facilities, instrumentation and supplies should be adequate to accommodate the needs of the programs, faculty, and students.

Guideline 12.2
Offices for faculty and staff should provide privacy for study and for counseling and advising students.

Guideline 12.3
Adequate space should be provided to assure a favorable environment for student life. Appropriate resources, including meeting rooms, study areas, lounge and organizational facilities, should be available.

Guideline 12.4
Adequate facilities should be provided for secretarial/clerical and other support staff to discharge effectively their respective responsibilities, including space for clerical and receptionist activities, duplicating services, and the development and preparation of instructional materials.

Guideline 12.5
Sufficient space must be available for housing instructional supplies, chemicals, drugs and pharmaceutical preparations, glassware, instrumentation, audio-visual and other equipment used in the teaching program.

Guideline 12.6
Equipment for laboratory work should be available so as to provide individual learning experiences and should be available in a quantity sufficient so that each student has an opportunity for participation. Specialized equipment should be available to serve the needs of students with specialized interests.

Guideline 12.7
An on-going program should exist to assure adequate maintenance of physical facilities, equipment and instrumentation.

Guideline 12.8
Proper and adequate animal facilities should be available to carry out the teaching and other programs of the college or school. Development and maintenance of such facilities are expected to meet acceptable standards for animal facilities.

Guideline 12.9
Access to specialized resources is necessary to support the professional programs. The specific resources required are dependent upon the curricula and activities of the college or school. Illustrative of such resources are a drug information center, pharmacokinetics laboratory and service, pharmaceutical technology laboratories, a nuclear pharmacy, and computer facilities. Such resources should be equipped and staffed in accord with accepted practices.

Guideline 12.10
Computer technology should be available to facilitate learning and to develop student understanding of computer applications in pharmacy practice.

Standard No. 13. Clinical Facilities

Essential to the professional programs are clinical facilities of adequate number and sufficient quality to deliver the clerkships and externships of the curricula. Suitable facilities should be available in in-patient and out-patient practice environments including patient care areas of institutions, hospital pharmacies, community pharmacies, and other appropriate clinical environments. Stable administrative and academic arrangements should exist between the college or school and its clinical affiliates.

Guideline 13.1
Where a university hospital or other university clinical facility exists, it is expected that these resources be available to the professional programs with appropriate relationships existent between the college or school, the hospital, and the hospital pharmacy services. Successful integration of the educational programs and the service base of the clinical facilities requires administrative and/or contractual agreements with the college or school to allow for appropriate patient-related instruction. In addition to university facilities which are available, arrangements should exist between the college or school and outside agencies for carrying out the clinical teaching program in the in-patient and out-patient environments necessary to the program.

Guideline 13.2
The patient population within the patient care facilities available to the college or school should be adequate for the instructional and research activities being conducted. Evaluation of learning opportunities should include assessment of the total number of students assigned to the facility, including pharmacy students as well as other health professional students.

Guideline 13.3
The pharmaceutical services at each clinical teaching site should be of an exemplary nature and should be integrated with the educational program.
 
Guideline 13.4
Supportive resources and services should be available to the professional program, including drug information, pharmacokinetics and drug analysis laboratories. A variety of specialty practice areas should also be available, such as a pharmacokinetic consultation service, and various specialty in-patient and out-patient services.

Guideline 13.5
Patient care facilities which offer opportunity for unique or innovative practice experiences should be available, such as primary care sites, extended care facilities, home health care units, health maintenance organizations, and health and welfare agencies.

Guideline 13.6
Stability of relationships between colleges and schools and their clinical affiliates should be demonstrated by contractual agreements or other statements of understanding. Agreements should provide for sufficient advance notification of termination in order to permit development of alternate affiliations should this become necessary.

Guideline 13.7
Clinical facilities, including community pharmacies and institutional pharmacies, should be selected in accord with quality criteria established and reviewed periodically by the college or school.

Standard No. 14. Library Resources

It is expected that the library resources, including its collection, services and staff, will be sufficient to support the professional programs and to provide for faculty development in accord with the objectives of the college or school. Physical facilities should exist which adequately house the library print and non-print holdings, and provide sufficient study and reading space for students and faculty.

Guideline 14.1
Search capabilities, inter-library loan and other methods for access to materials not included in the collection should be available.

Guideline 14.2
The library should be under the direction of a professional librarian who enjoys good working relationships and open communications with faculty and students.

Guideline 14.3
Adequate holdings of current reference books and a wide range of relevant periodicals in support of the program are essential. There should be an effective mechanism for review and updating of library holdings.

Guideline 14.4
An organized program should exist to acquaint students with the effective and efficient use of the library as well as with the use of advanced information storage and retrieval techniques.

Standard No. 15. Financial Resources

Financial resources available to a college or school should be such that continuing operation of the programs is insured at an acceptable level. An adequate budget is essential to meet programmatic goals and needs including faculty and staff salaries, materials and supplies, faculty development, curricular study and improvement, as well as to provide for appropriate physical facilities. The university and college or school should develop and maintain a broad base of financial support.

Guideline 15.1
The budget of the college or school is expected to be managed using sound and accepted business practices.

Guideline 15.2
A program should be established to acquire extramural funds through endowment income, grants, contracts and other fund raising endeavors. Such resources, as well as funds for scholarships and fellowships, should be free of restrictions that might interfere with sound educational policy.

Guideline 15.3
In colleges or schools offering both professional programs, resources should not be employed to the benefit of one program at the expense of the other. Unless sufficient resources are available to develop and maintain both professional programs, the college or school should offer only one professional degree program.

CURRICULUM AND DEGREES
 
Standard No. 16. Accredited Professional Degree Programs

ACPE accredits programs leading to the two professional degrees in pharmacy, the baccalaureate in pharmacy degree and the doctor of pharmacy degree. Graduates of these professional degree programs should be educationally prepared for practice and should satisfy educational requirements for licensure.

Standard No. 17. The Professional Curricula

The professional curricula are the organized programs of study designed to achieve the goals of pharmaceutical education in general, and the objectives of the college or school of pharmacy in particular. The principal objective of the professional curriculum is to provide a plan for the education and training of qualified students for careers in pharmacy practice. The baccalaureate in pharmacy curriculum usually requires a five academic year program of study. A doctor of pharmacy curriculum usually requires six academic years to complete degree requirements and an intervening baccalaureate in pharmacy degree is generally not awarded. Students who already hold the baccalaureate in pharmacy degree may be admitted to doctor of pharmacy programs; the combined period of study is usually longer than six academic years. In such instances, admissions and/or curricular requirements should provide assurances that all programmatic expectations for the doctor of pharmacy degree have been satisfied.

Guideline 17.1
Accelerated or compressed curricular arrangements are considered to be a change from the traditional academic year program to a program encompassing the calendar year. In total instructional time, therefore, the traditional and accelerated or compressed curricula are essentially the same and are evaluated utilizing the same standards and expectations.

Guideline 17.2
Unique programs or apparent variations from accepted curricular standards place a requirement on the college or school to demonstrate that modifications proposed provide adequately for program equivalency. Assurances are expected that all graduates of a given college or school's professional programs will have enjoyed educationally equivalent experiences and will have achieved educationally equivalent outcomes.

Guideline 17.3
Objectives for each professional program should be stated in terms of common knowledge and skills, as well as differentiated and/or additional knowledge and skills which the curriculum may address for specific practice roles.

Guideline 17.4
When both professional degree programs are offered by a college or school, separate sets of objectives should be established for each curriculum.

Standard No. 18. The Baccalaureate in Pharmacy Curriculum

The curriculum should provide the student with a basic core of professional knowledge and skill as well as a sound general educational base, which in composite provides for a well-educated and well-trained professional. In addition, the curriculum should provide opportunity for selection of courses and options in keeping with specialized interests and goals. The curriculum should also provide for the development of professional attitudes and foster an appreciation for professional responsibilities. The various components of the curriculum should be in phase with one another and an appropriate balance is expected among the following four areas of the core
curriculum:

General Education: Defined as behavioral, social and humanistic areas of knowledge.

Basic Sciences: Includes mathematics as well as the physical and biological sciences which are requisite for professional instruction.

Professional Sciences: Includes the biomedical sciences, pharmaceutical sciences, and the clinical sciences.

Practice Experiences: Includes clerkships and externships.
 
Guideline 18.1
To foster an appreciation for professional responsibility, the need for life-long learning should be reflected as an integral theme of the curriculum.

Guideline 18.2
General Education: For assurances of a sound general education base, 30 semester hours or its equivalent of course work, including English courses, should be allocated to the area of general education.

Guideline 18.3
Basic Sciences: Illustrative of courses necessary to professional instruction are general chemistry, organic chemistry, general biology, and mathematics.

Guideline 18.4
Professional Sciences: Includes learning units to develop the student in the following areas:

Guideline 18.4.1: biomedical sciences, which include anatomy, physiology, microbiology/immunology, biochemistry, pathology, and biostatistics.

Guideline 18.4.2: pharmaceutical sciences, which include pharmaceutical or medicinal chemistry, basic pharmaceutics, biopharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacognosy or natural products, pharmacology, and pharmacy administration (i.e., health care economics, practice management, communications, laws and ethical principles pertaining to practice, and the social and behavioral sciences in pharmacy).

Guideline 18.4.3: clinical sciences, which include clinical applications based on the biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences such as instruction in clinical and practice foundations, disease processes, clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, and drug information and literature evaluation.

Guideline 18.5
Practice Experiences: The curriculum should contain educational activities which are experiential in character. These activities should consist of clerkships and externships which build upon the professional sciences and promote the application of professional knowledge and skills. Practice experiences of adequate intensity, breadth, and duration are expected, in keeping with the college or school's objectives for the professional program.

Guideline 18.5.1: The externship and clerkship structure, content and design should be guided by a policy established by the faculty. A quality control system should be in place to assure the achievement of intended outcomes.

Guideline 18.5.2: Arrangements for relating the externship and clerkship experiences to board of pharmacy internship requirements which may exist for licensure are encouraged.

Guideline 18.5.3: The practice experiences should provide an appropriate balance between clerkship and externship. The externship is expected to include experiences in both community pharmacies and institutional pharmacies. The clerkship should be provided in appropriate in-patient settings or out-patient health care environments wherein a complete informational base exists for the pharmaceutical care of patients.

Guideline 18.5.4: Standardized student performance expectations should be established to provide guidance to preceptors so as to assist them in assuring reasonably consistent experiences and outcomes among the various sites employed.

Guideline 18.5.5: To assure the primacy of an appropriate student/teacher relationship, students should be duly enrolled in the college or school of pharmacy and should not receive monetary remuneration for externship and clerkship activities.

Standard No. 19. The Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum

The differentiation between the baccalaureate in pharmacy and doctor of pharmacy curricula should be based upon scope, depth and proficiency of knowledge, skills and judgment acquired. The curriculum should provide the student with an enhanced core of professional knowledge and skills through enrichment of the biomedical, pharmaceutical, and clinical sciences, as well as through practice experiences. The curriculum should prepare students to be practitioners who are mature in the clinical practice of pharmacy.

The doctor of pharmacy curriculum should:

(a) Satisfy curricular requirements of the baccalaureate in pharmacy program, including externships, as set forth under Standard No. 18, The Baccalaureate in Pharmacy Curriculum;

(b) Provide an enhanced educational base for the clinical component of the curriculum, so that proficiency may be acquired in the clinical use of drugs as well as in the application of biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences to drug therapy and practice problems. Emphasis must accordingly be placed upon the following areas: pathophysiology, physical assessment, clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, clinical aspects of biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics, and pharmacy administration; and

(c) Provide structured educational experiences in the clinical practice of pharmacy, of adequate quality and quantity, to assure development of clinical skills and judgment with the acquisition of the confidence necessary to assess therapeutic problems and to be an active participant in those decision-making processes related to the pharmaceutical care of patients. These experiential activities should be organized in structure and content so as to provide for the development of practice functions consistent with program objectives. The practice experience should provide ample opportunity for that maturation process necessary to an understanding of disease problems, drug therapy and their application to patients. A combination of required and elective experiences in the clinical practice of pharmacy should be structured with appropriate balance so as to provide a core of professional knowledge and skills along with flexibility which permits students to develop in accord with specialized practice interests and to benefit from unique resources available to the program.

Guideline 19.1
Pathophysiology and therapeutics should be studied in depth and with adequate attention to the social and psychological aspects of patient care.

Guideline 19.2
Traditional methods of providing biomedical, pharmaceutical and clinical science instruction should be augmented in order to provide a meaningful understanding of systemic disease processes and diagnoses. Students should work with patients, participate in patient care rounds and attend clinical case conferences in various patient settings to develop a full understanding of the therapeutic management of patients.

Guideline 19.3
Students should acquire experiences in the clinical practice of pharmacy in the following settings: general medicine, inpatient/acute care area; an ambulatory health care setting (e.g., family practice centers, health maintenance organizations, and clinics); and a medical specialty area (e.g., pediatrics, geriatrics, mental health, cardiology, nephrology, and nutritional support).

Guideline 19.4
Practice experiences should include application of clinical pharmacokinetic principles in the development and management of dosing and should incorporate knowledge and skills in the searching, analysis and interpretation of drug information.

Guideline 19.5
Practice experiences should be provided in enriched clinical settings. Ambulatory care-based practice sites should provide full opportunity to consult with and advise patients, interface with other health professionals in the care of patients, and to participate in the monitoring of patient therapy. In-patient care-based practice sites should permit access to a complete patient data base and provide opportunity to work closely in full collaboration with other health professionals in the management of patient therapy.

Guideline 19.6
A substantial experiential commitment is necessary to assure the expected development of clinical skills and judgment and to provide adequate time to build confidence and to foster maturation in the clinical practice of pharmacy. The experiential activities should assure continuity of learning experiences.

EXPERIMENTATION AND EVALUATION
 
Standard No. 20. Experimentation and Innovation

Experimentation and innovation within the pharmacy curriculum are expected. Experimental or innovative approaches should be adequately planned and coupled with an appropriate evaluation system. Colleges or schools of pharmacy desiring to explore curricular alternatives or other arrangements which depart from current standards should provide assurances that quality is not adversely affected.

Guideline 20.1
Particular areas expected for experimentation and innovation are curricular design, teaching strategies, instructional materials and delivery methods, student services, validation of new roles and practice functions for pharmacists, and other issues important to the continued growth and development of the profession.

Guideline 20.2
The results of experimental and/or innovative programs should be made available to other colleges and schools of pharmacy.

Standard No. 21. Evaluation

Evaluation of the professional programs is expected in order to monitor effectiveness and to provide a studied basis for planned change. Sufficient qualitative and quantitative information regarding the programs should be secured which shows an ongoing program of evaluation of outcomes consistent with stated goals and objectives.

Guideline 21.1
A curriculum committee or other appropriate body should be in place to manage an orderly and systematic review of the curriculum structure, content and process. Defined authorities and responsibilities should exist for this body so as to facilitate the necessary curricular study and to formulate recommendations for faculty consideration.

Guideline 21.2
Evaluation mechanisms should be designed to document the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to achieve expected performance. If both the baccalaureate in pharmacy and doctor of pharmacy programs are offered, differentiation between respective outcome measures should be established.

Guideline 21.3
Indicators for student achievement and educational outcome that demonstrate the success of the program in attaining its objectives should be secured. One such indicator is graduates' performance on standardized licensure examinations. Such scores should be among means for curriculum evaluation. Additional outcome measures should be sought which measure factors judged relevant to the graduate's functioning throughout adult life.

STUDENT AFFAIRS
 
Standard No. 22. Admission Arrangements

Students may be admitted to the baccalaureate in pharmacy or the doctor of pharmacy program directly from high school, by transfer from within the university, or by transfer from another post-secondary institution, upon completion of prescribed pre-professional study (termed prepharmacy). Students may also be admitted to a doctor of pharmacy program after receiving a baccalaureate in pharmacy degree from an ACPE accredited baccalaureate in pharmacy program. Students who have not graduated from an ACPE accredited baccalaureate in pharmacy program may be admitted to the doctor of pharmacy curriculum provided a program of study is developed which assures that all curricular requirements of a doctor of pharmacy program, as set forth in Standard No. 19, will be met. Students in good standing and eligible to continue in the college or school of pharmacy they have been attending may be accepted for transfer with advanced standing to another college or school of pharmacy within a framework for providing assurances that such students will satisfy all curricular requirements of the college or school in accord with ACPE standards prior to the award of a professional degree.

Guideline 22.1
In instances of transfer of courses, consideration for advanced standing in the professional programs should include achievement of a grade of C or better to satisfy requirements. Credits earned from another college or school of pharmacy for which a grade of C or better has been earned should ordinarily be accepted.

Standard No. 23. Criteria for Admission

The establishment of admission criteria for the professional programs is a responsibility of the college or school of pharmacy. The college or school of pharmacy should demonstrate its autonomy in the establishment of admissions criteria, policies and procedures. A policy should exist which assures non-discrimination on the basis of race, religion, sex, or national origin. A pool of well-qualified applicants should be sought.

Guideline 23.1
A recruitment program or other mechanism should be established to provide a pool of well qualified applicants for the available positions.

Guideline 23.2
Admissions decisions should give consideration not only to scholastic accomplishments but also to other factors such as motivation, industry and communication capabilities.

Guideline 23.3
Studies of the relationship between admissions criteria and student performance should be conducted to monitor the effectiveness of the admissions process.

Standard No. 24. Progression of Students

The college or school of pharmacy should establish criteria and policies and procedures for promotion as well as for academic probation, dismissal and readmission.

Guideline 24.1
Criteria, policy and procedures for progression through the program should be published and made available to students. An ongoing monitoring system of student performance is necessary for the early detection of academic difficulty. Students should be informed of their academic status, particularly when progress is unsatisfactory.

Guideline 24.2
The college or school should coordinate a tutorial service for students requiring such assistance.

Standard No. 25. Academic Advising and Personal Counseling

A college or school should meet student needs for academic advising and for personal and career counseling.

Guideline 25.1
Adequate personnel and other support should be provided by the college or school for academic advising and career counseling. Academic advising should include attention to outside commitments which may interfere with academic progress. Personal counseling should be made available through the university resources or other mechanisms.

Guideline 25.2
Students should be introduced to pharmacy career pathways and their corresponding educational or training requirements. The value of extracurricular activities including involvement in student, professional and social organizations should be inculcated.
 
Standard No. 26. Financial Assistance

The university and the college or school of pharmacy should demonstrate that reasonable efforts have been made to assist students in obtaining financial aid.

Standard No. 27. Student Records

The college or school of pharmacy should demonstrate that an ordered, accurate and secure system of student records is maintained.

Guideline 27.1
Student records must be confidentially maintained and the college or school should be able to demonstrate that access is limited to authorized persons. Students should be informed of right of access to their own records.

Guideline 27.2
A policy should exist with respect to providing information about students enrolled in a college or school of pharmacy to individuals or agencies outside the college or school or the university.

Guideline 27.3
Student records should be kept in a manner which facilitates auditing necessary to verify completion of all degree requirements.

Standard No. 28. Student Representation

The college or school should show evidence that student opinion is sought and taken into account, and that student representation exists on appropriate committees and other policy and decision-making bodies of the college or school.

Guideline 28.1
Ongoing student participation should be evident on select committees and other bodies that concern themselves with matters affecting students. For example, student participation on the curriculum committee is expected. Students should be given the opportunity to be heard during regular faculty meetings.

Guideline 28.2
Instruments and techniques, such as student evaluation questionnaires and exit interviews, should be employed for purposes of obtaining student opinions of faculty, curriculum, and other aspects of the professional program.

Guideline 28.3
To assure adequate communication of student opinions and perspectives, a suitable mechanism should be established, such as a student/faculty relations committee, student grievance committee or a student governance council.

Standard No. 29. Student/Faculty Relationships

An environment that is conducive to good student morale and fosters harmonious relationships between students and faculty should exist. Faculty should actively nurture a positive attitude about the profession and encourage student involvement in the issues confronting the profession. The college or school of pharmacy should assure that its students are exposed to a broad range of professional viewpoints.

Guideline 29.1
Faculty should actively encourage students to participate in professional activities such as reading the professional literature, involvement in professional organizations, attendance at continuing education programs and assistance in the development of quality continuing education activities.

Guideline 29.2
The college or school should broaden the horizons of students through scheduling of guest lectures, seminars, and other curricular or extracurricular events.

Guideline 29.3
Attendance by faculty at student functions, both professional and social, is urged as an effective means of fostering harmonious relationships.

Guideline 29.4
The college or school should show evidence of efforts to insure that students are exposed to professional ethics and standards of practice. Before graduation, students should become professional people who can be depended upon to place the patient's interest above their own. Students who exhibit failure to appreciate and accept this responsibility should be extended counseling to correct this deficiency or be advised to seek another career.

 

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