Standards and Guidelines for Accreditation of
Professional Degree Programs in Pharmacy, 8th Edition
Organization and Administration
Faculty and Staff
Physical, Clinical, Library and Financial Resources
Curriculum and Degrees
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION
Standard No. 1. University Organizational Structure
The university is expected to assure that the college or school
of pharmacy maintains a reasonable degree of autonomy for development
of its professional programs, as defined by its dean and faculty,
within the framework of the university's aims and objectives.
Professional programs in pharmacy are those leading to the baccalaureate
in pharmacy and the doctor of pharmacy degrees. Within institutional
policies, responsibility and authority for administration of these
professional programs, including curriculum development and delivery,
should be vested in the college or school of pharmacy to assure
appropriate programmatic autonomy.
Standard No. 2. University Organization and Administration
for Education and Service Activities
Organizational structure and administrative patterns in university
or university-affiliated institutions should promote integrated
educational and service activities, provide a clearly understood
relationship between service and educational units, provide the
necessary blend of educational and patient care activities, and
assure that appropriate authority for the control and supervision
of academic activities is vested in the college or school of pharmacy.
Standard No. 3. University Support for Interdisciplinary
Health Science Education
The university is expected to assist the college or school of pharmacy
in developing suitable relationships with other health professions
for instruction, research and patient care. If other health professions
are present within the university, such relationships should be
fostered within university facilities. Additional relationships,
as needed, should be secured through affiliations with agencies
external to the university.
Interprofessional health science education should be encouraged
through administrative organization which will permit access to
and facilitate utilization of common physical and clinical facilities.
The professional programs in pharmacy should benefit from association
with other health science programs, including opportunities for
shared clinical experiences.
The university is expected to develop and to support a suitable
consortium of the health profession colleges and/or schools present
within the university. In those instances where a limited number
or an absence of other health professional colleges or schools exist
within the university, an advisory board or other liaison mechanism
should be established to facilitate interprofessional relationships.
Standard No. 4. University Financial and Physical Resource
The university is expected to provide adequate financial and physical
resources to assure stability of the college or school of pharmacy
and to enable it to meet its programmatic responsibilities.
Standard No. 5. College or School of Pharmacy Mission and
The college or school of pharmacy should generate a comprehensive
statement of its mission and goals in the areas of education, research
and service. The mission and goals of a college or school should
demonstrate consistency with current and projected educational needs
for pharmacy as a unique profession in the health science field.
Goals should be compatible with the general and specific objectives
of pharmaceutical education in keeping with accepted standards of
practice as reflected in the accreditation standards.
In establishing the mission and goals, a college or school of pharmacy
should draw upon contemporary practice standards and on long-range
expectations for evolution of the profession.
Professional programs of a college or school of pharmacy will be
considered in the light of their own stated purposes so long as
those purposes demonstrably fall within, and adequately reflect,
the definitions of professional programs established by the accreditation
Departments, divisions, or other subunits of the college or school
which may exist should have their own goals and objectives, and
demonstrate an understanding of how these articulate with collegiate
and programmatic goals and objectives.
A systematic planning process should be employed to facilitate achievement
of the college's or school's mission, goals and objectives.
Standard No. 6. College or School Organization and Administration
The college or school of pharmacy should be organized in a manner
which facilitates achievement of its goals and effectively utilizes
its resources. The organization and administration of the college
or school should provide for a dean. The organizational and administrative
structure should clearly identify lines of authority and responsibility,
and should assure a framework which fosters adequate communications.
There should be mutual understanding and agreement among the faculty,
the dean, and other administrators on the goals of the college or
school and evidence of acceptance of their responsibilities in achieving
A well-ordered plan should exist for the effective utilization of
financial resources available to the college or school.
There should be evidence that facilities, student services and other
administrative support for the professional programs are available
and organized to accomplish stated goals.
Criteria for faculty evaluation and a policy for their application
should be established which takes into account the diverse responsibilities
of a health profession faculty. Clearly delineated and mutually
agreed upon faculty performance criteria should be in place for
tenure and promotion of all eligible faculty.
Administrative policy should be established which supports faculty
development. Enrichment opportunities should be available to all
faculty. Attendance at appropriate meetings and seminars should
Standard No. 7. Dean and Faculty Responsibilities
The dean and faculty are responsible for recruitment and retention
of a competent faculty and staff; development, implementation and
continuation of the instructional, research and service programs
of the college or school; initiation, implementation and continuation
of programs for the recruitment and admission of qualified students;
establishment and implementation of standards for academic performance
and progression; and maintenance of the visibility of pharmacy and
the college or school of pharmacy both on campus and to external
constituencies. The dean of the college or school is expected to
demonstrate positive, constructive academic and professional leadership
and to effectively unite and inspire faculty and students toward
The faculty should meet with suitable regularity, and a committee
structure should exist to assist in the work of the college or school.
Minutes of faculty meetings and written records of committee actions
should be permanently maintained for future reference.
The dean and faculty are expected to contribute to the university
by serving on university committees in a manner consistent with
the need of the institution in general and the welfare of the college
or school in particular.
Among indices of positive and constructive leadership of the dean
are scientific and scholarly achievements, participation in the
affairs of pharmaceutical organizations, interest in a progressive
educational process, understanding of the problems of pharmacists
and other health professionals, cooperation with other university
officials and leaders in the profession, and an awareness of directions
in health care.
In instances where the dean of the college or school of pharmacy
is assigned other administrative responsibilities within the university,
it is expected that arrangements for administrative support to the
office of the dean will be made so as to assure effective administration
of the affairs of the college or school of pharmacy.
Where the faculty is organized into departments, divisions, or other
sub-units of the College or School, heads or chairs should be viewed
as being critical to effective implementation of departmental/divisional
goals, and, in concert with the Dean, play a leadership role in
the improvement and development of the professional program. A major
responsibility of heads or chairs should be the development of faculty
with provision of guidance and counseling in accord with institution-based
as well as departmental/divisional and individualized objectives.
FACULTY AND STAFF
Standard No. 8. Essentials for Faculty and Staff
The factor of greatest significance in assurance of educational
quality in a college or school of pharmacy is the excellence of
its faculty and staff. In addition to an adequate number of faculty,
essential faculty qualities include appropriate educational background
and experience, good attitude and morale, effective teaching skills,
and commitment to scholarship and service. Faculty should be committed
to the goals and objectives of the college or school. Faculty whose
responsibilities include practice should be licensed pharmacists
satisfying all professional licensure requirements which apply to
their practice sites.
The faculty should possess professional and academic expertise with
suitable backgrounds in educational techniques and administration,
commensurate with their ranks and responsibilities.
Faculty are expected to be involved, on a continuing basis, in the
improvement in their areas of teaching, service and scholarly activities.
Faculty and professional staff should be selected in accordance
with a policy which assures nondiscrimination on the basis of race,
religion, sex, and national origin.
Faculty should be evaluated for quality and effectiveness utilizing
academically accepted indicia appropriate to the defined responsibilities
of individual faculty members. Among these are:
Guideline 8.4.1: ability, skills and enthusiasm
Guideline 8.4.2: scholarship demonstrated by productive
research, contributions to the scientific and professional literature,
or other evidence of scholarly accomplishment such as the publication
of books and reviews.
Guideline 8.4.3: success in securing extramural
funding in support of research activities.
Guideline 8.4.4: research and development in pharmaceutical
Guideline 8.4.5: attendance at professional and
scholarly meetings as well as participation in and contributions
to seminars, workshops, colloquia or short courses in the field
Guideline 8.4.6: effective behavioral and role
modeling for students.
Guideline 8.47: participation in the life of the
college or school and the university, as evidenced by committee
service, chairmanship of committees, and involvement in campus governing
Guideline 8.4.8: participation in the advancement
of the profession as evidenced by membership in appropriate organizations,
attendance at meetings, presentation of papers at such meetings,
service on committees or as an officer of professional organizations,
conducting continuing education programs, and other evidence of
service to the profession.
Volunteer clinical faculty and preceptors should be exemplary role-model
practitioners, and should reflect a broad spectrum of pharmacy practice
settings. Criteria for appointment, retention and promotion should
be established in accord with policies of the university and college
or school, and should be based upon teaching performance and practice
characteristics. Such faculty are expected to effectively address
the intended educational objectives and outcomes set forth for the
clinical or practice experience programs.
Standard No. 9. Critical Nucleus of Faculty and Staff
Faculty and staff resources should meet the comprehensive needs
of a health profession college or school including its curriculum,
research and scholarly activities, as well as its professional and
public service responsibilities. A critical nucleus of full-time
faculty in all areas of the professional curriculum is essential
to quality pharmaceutical education. This nucleus may be complemented
by part-time faculty. Clerkship and externship instruction requires
significant student/preceptor interaction and thus a low student/preceptor
ratio is expected.
Adjunct, part-time, salaried and non-salaried faculty, pharmacy
residents, and graduate/teaching assistants may assist in the educational
program; however, with the exception of externship, these faculty/staff
resources should not be the primary resource for teaching basic
didactic courses or clerkships.
The student/preceptor ratio for clerkships should be adequate to
provide individualized guidance and evaluative supervision by pharmacy
faculty. A major factor to be considered to assure this goal is
the number of students each faculty member is assigned during a
given clerkship rotation.
Standard No. 10. Self-Evaluation of Faculty
Faculty should continually evaluate their individual and collective
performance as well as engage in programmatic evaluation. It is
essential that faculty evaluate the teaching, scholarship and service
activities of their colleagues. Faculty should conduct studies aimed
at improvement of admission and counseling procedures, participate
in curriculum surveys, study examination methods and results, make
systematic efforts to obtain suggestions for programmatic improvements,
seize other opportunities to strengthen the program, and devise
ways and means for measuring programmatic outcomes.
Standard No. 11. Supportive Personnel
Adequate supportive personnel including administrators, secretaries,
stockroom attendants, laboratory technicians, and maintenance personnel
are required for effective operation of a college or school of pharmacy.
Supportive programs, including drug information centers and clinical
pharmacokinetics laboratories, should be adequately staffed with
qualified personnel. Teaching assistants should be chosen in accordance
with a well-defined policy; they should be trained properly for
their teaching and supportive roles in the professional program
and should be adequately supervised in fulfilling their responsibilities
PHYSICAL, CLINICAL, LIBRARY AND FINANCIAL
Standard No. 12. Physical Facilities
Physical resources are necessary to achieve the goals of the college
or school of pharmacy. Essential physical facilities include administrative
and faculty offices, teaching and research laboratories, lecture
rooms, conference rooms, student activities areas, and other service
and programmatic support areas. Physical facilities should be adequately
equipped, well-maintained, and provide a reasonably attractive environment
Teaching facilities, such as classrooms, conference and seminar
rooms, as well as general and specialized laboratories, should be
sufficient in number and adequate in size to accommodate the student
body. Teaching facilities should be properly equipped for the types
of programs and curricula offered by the college and school. Research
facilities, instrumentation and supplies should be adequate to accommodate
the needs of the programs, faculty, and students.
Offices for faculty and staff should provide privacy for study and
for counseling and advising students.
Adequate space should be provided to assure a favorable environment
for student life. Appropriate resources, including meeting rooms,
study areas, lounge and organizational facilities, should be available.
Adequate facilities should be provided for secretarial/clerical
and other support staff to discharge effectively their respective
responsibilities, including space for clerical and receptionist
activities, duplicating services, and the development and preparation
of instructional materials.
Sufficient space must be available for housing instructional supplies,
chemicals, drugs and pharmaceutical preparations, glassware, instrumentation,
audio-visual and other equipment used in the teaching program.
Equipment for laboratory work should be available so as to provide
individual learning experiences and should be available in a quantity
sufficient so that each student has an opportunity for participation.
Specialized equipment should be available to serve the needs of
students with specialized interests.
An on-going program should exist to assure adequate maintenance
of physical facilities, equipment and instrumentation.
Proper and adequate animal facilities should be available to carry
out the teaching and other programs of the college or school. Development
and maintenance of such facilities are expected to meet acceptable
standards for animal facilities.
Access to specialized resources is necessary to support the professional
programs. The specific resources required are dependent upon the
curricula and activities of the college or school. Illustrative
of such resources are a drug information center, pharmacokinetics
laboratory and service, pharmaceutical technology laboratories,
a nuclear pharmacy, and computer facilities. Such resources should
be equipped and staffed in accord with accepted practices.
Computer technology should be available to facilitate learning and
to develop student understanding of computer applications in pharmacy
Standard No. 13. Clinical Facilities
Essential to the professional programs are clinical facilities of
adequate number and sufficient quality to deliver the clerkships
and externships of the curricula. Suitable facilities should be
available in in-patient and out-patient practice environments including
patient care areas of institutions, hospital pharmacies, community
pharmacies, and other appropriate clinical environments. Stable
administrative and academic arrangements should exist between the
college or school and its clinical affiliates.
Where a university hospital or other university clinical facility
exists, it is expected that these resources be available to the
professional programs with appropriate relationships existent between
the college or school, the hospital, and the hospital pharmacy services.
Successful integration of the educational programs and the service
base of the clinical facilities requires administrative and/or contractual
agreements with the college or school to allow for appropriate patient-related
instruction. In addition to university facilities which are available,
arrangements should exist between the college or school and outside
agencies for carrying out the clinical teaching program in the in-patient
and out-patient environments necessary to the program.
The patient population within the patient care facilities available
to the college or school should be adequate for the instructional
and research activities being conducted. Evaluation of learning
opportunities should include assessment of the total number of students
assigned to the facility, including pharmacy students as well as
other health professional students.
The pharmaceutical services at each clinical teaching site should
be of an exemplary nature and should be integrated with the educational
Supportive resources and services should be available to the professional
program, including drug information, pharmacokinetics and drug analysis
laboratories. A variety of specialty practice areas should also
be available, such as a pharmacokinetic consultation service, and
various specialty in-patient and out-patient services.
Patient care facilities which offer opportunity for unique or innovative
practice experiences should be available, such as primary care sites,
extended care facilities, home health care units, health maintenance
organizations, and health and welfare agencies.
Stability of relationships between colleges and schools and their
clinical affiliates should be demonstrated by contractual agreements
or other statements of understanding. Agreements should provide
for sufficient advance notification of termination in order to permit
development of alternate affiliations should this become necessary.
Clinical facilities, including community pharmacies and institutional
pharmacies, should be selected in accord with quality criteria established
and reviewed periodically by the college or school.
Standard No. 14. Library Resources
It is expected that the library resources, including its collection,
services and staff, will be sufficient to support the professional
programs and to provide for faculty development in accord with the
objectives of the college or school. Physical facilities should
exist which adequately house the library print and non-print holdings,
and provide sufficient study and reading space for students and
Search capabilities, inter-library loan and other methods for access
to materials not included in the collection should be available.
The library should be under the direction of a professional librarian
who enjoys good working relationships and open communications with
faculty and students.
Adequate holdings of current reference books and a wide range of
relevant periodicals in support of the program are essential. There
should be an effective mechanism for review and updating of library
An organized program should exist to acquaint students with the
effective and efficient use of the library as well as with the use
of advanced information storage and retrieval techniques.
Standard No. 15. Financial Resources
Financial resources available to a college or school should be such
that continuing operation of the programs is insured at an acceptable
level. An adequate budget is essential to meet programmatic goals
and needs including faculty and staff salaries, materials and supplies,
faculty development, curricular study and improvement, as well as
to provide for appropriate physical facilities. The university and
college or school should develop and maintain a broad base of financial
The budget of the college or school is expected to be managed using
sound and accepted business practices.
A program should be established to acquire extramural funds through
endowment income, grants, contracts and other fund raising endeavors.
Such resources, as well as funds for scholarships and fellowships,
should be free of restrictions that might interfere with sound educational
In colleges or schools offering both professional programs, resources
should not be employed to the benefit of one program at the expense
of the other. Unless sufficient resources are available to develop
and maintain both professional programs, the college or school should
offer only one professional degree program.
CURRICULUM AND DEGREES
Standard No. 16. Accredited Professional Degree Programs
ACPE accredits programs leading to the two professional degrees
in pharmacy, the baccalaureate in pharmacy degree and the doctor
of pharmacy degree. Graduates of these professional degree programs
should be educationally prepared for practice and should satisfy
educational requirements for licensure.
Standard No. 17. The Professional Curricula
The professional curricula are the organized programs of study designed
to achieve the goals of pharmaceutical education in general, and
the objectives of the college or school of pharmacy in particular.
The principal objective of the professional curriculum is to provide
a plan for the education and training of qualified students for
careers in pharmacy practice. The baccalaureate in pharmacy curriculum
usually requires a five academic year program of study. A doctor
of pharmacy curriculum usually requires six academic years to complete
degree requirements and an intervening baccalaureate in pharmacy
degree is generally not awarded. Students who already hold the baccalaureate
in pharmacy degree may be admitted to doctor of pharmacy programs;
the combined period of study is usually longer than six academic
years. In such instances, admissions and/or curricular requirements
should provide assurances that all programmatic expectations for
the doctor of pharmacy degree have been satisfied.
Accelerated or compressed curricular arrangements are considered
to be a change from the traditional academic year program to a program
encompassing the calendar year. In total instructional time, therefore,
the traditional and accelerated or compressed curricula are essentially
the same and are evaluated utilizing the same standards and expectations.
Unique programs or apparent variations from accepted curricular
standards place a requirement on the college or school to demonstrate
that modifications proposed provide adequately for program equivalency.
Assurances are expected that all graduates of a given college or
school's professional programs will have enjoyed educationally equivalent
experiences and will have achieved educationally equivalent outcomes.
Objectives for each professional program should be stated in terms
of common knowledge and skills, as well as differentiated and/or
additional knowledge and skills which the curriculum may address
for specific practice roles.
When both professional degree programs are offered by a college
or school, separate sets of objectives should be established for
Standard No. 18. The Baccalaureate in Pharmacy Curriculum
The curriculum should provide the student with a basic core of professional
knowledge and skill as well as a sound general educational base,
which in composite provides for a well-educated and well-trained
professional. In addition, the curriculum should provide opportunity
for selection of courses and options in keeping with specialized
interests and goals. The curriculum should also provide for the
development of professional attitudes and foster an appreciation
for professional responsibilities. The various components of the
curriculum should be in phase with one another and an appropriate
balance is expected among the following four areas of the core
General Education: Defined as behavioral, social
and humanistic areas of knowledge.
Basic Sciences: Includes mathematics as well as
the physical and biological sciences which are requisite for professional
Professional Sciences: Includes the biomedical
sciences, pharmaceutical sciences, and the clinical sciences.
Practice Experiences: Includes clerkships and externships.
To foster an appreciation for professional responsibility, the need
for life-long learning should be reflected as an integral theme
of the curriculum.
General Education: For assurances of a sound general education base,
30 semester hours or its equivalent of course work, including English
courses, should be allocated to the area of general education.
Basic Sciences: Illustrative of courses necessary to professional
instruction are general chemistry, organic chemistry, general biology,
Professional Sciences: Includes learning units to develop the student
in the following areas:
Guideline 18.4.1: biomedical sciences, which include
anatomy, physiology, microbiology/immunology, biochemistry, pathology,
Guideline 18.4.2: pharmaceutical sciences, which
include pharmaceutical or medicinal chemistry, basic pharmaceutics,
biopharmaceutics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacognosy or natural products,
pharmacology, and pharmacy administration (i.e., health care economics,
practice management, communications, laws and ethical principles
pertaining to practice, and the social and behavioral sciences in
Guideline 18.4.3: clinical sciences, which include
clinical applications based on the biomedical and pharmaceutical
sciences such as instruction in clinical and practice foundations,
disease processes, clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, and drug
information and literature evaluation.
Practice Experiences: The curriculum should contain educational
activities which are experiential in character. These activities
should consist of clerkships and externships which build upon the
professional sciences and promote the application of professional
knowledge and skills. Practice experiences of adequate intensity,
breadth, and duration are expected, in keeping with the college
or school's objectives for the professional program.
Guideline 18.5.1: The externship and clerkship
structure, content and design should be guided by a policy established
by the faculty. A quality control system should be in place to assure
the achievement of intended outcomes.
Guideline 18.5.2: Arrangements for relating the
externship and clerkship experiences to board of pharmacy internship
requirements which may exist for licensure are encouraged.
Guideline 18.5.3: The practice experiences should
provide an appropriate balance between clerkship and externship.
The externship is expected to include experiences in both community
pharmacies and institutional pharmacies. The clerkship should be
provided in appropriate in-patient settings or out-patient health
care environments wherein a complete informational base exists for
the pharmaceutical care of patients.
Guideline 18.5.4: Standardized student performance
expectations should be established to provide guidance to preceptors
so as to assist them in assuring reasonably consistent experiences
and outcomes among the various sites employed.
Guideline 18.5.5: To assure the primacy of an
appropriate student/teacher relationship, students should be duly
enrolled in the college or school of pharmacy and should not receive
monetary remuneration for externship and clerkship activities.
Standard No. 19. The Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum
The differentiation between the baccalaureate in pharmacy and doctor
of pharmacy curricula should be based upon scope, depth and proficiency
of knowledge, skills and judgment acquired. The curriculum should
provide the student with an enhanced core of professional knowledge
and skills through enrichment of the biomedical, pharmaceutical,
and clinical sciences, as well as through practice experiences.
The curriculum should prepare students to be practitioners who are
mature in the clinical practice of pharmacy.
The doctor of pharmacy curriculum should:
(a) Satisfy curricular requirements of the baccalaureate
in pharmacy program, including externships, as set forth under Standard
No. 18, The Baccalaureate in Pharmacy Curriculum;
(b) Provide an enhanced educational base for the
clinical component of the curriculum, so that proficiency may be
acquired in the clinical use of drugs as well as in the application
of biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences to drug therapy and practice
problems. Emphasis must accordingly be placed upon the following
areas: pathophysiology, physical assessment, clinical pharmacology
and therapeutics, clinical aspects of biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics,
and pharmacy administration; and
(c) Provide structured educational experiences
in the clinical practice of pharmacy, of adequate quality and quantity,
to assure development of clinical skills and judgment with the acquisition
of the confidence necessary to assess therapeutic problems and to
be an active participant in those decision-making processes related
to the pharmaceutical care of patients. These experiential activities
should be organized in structure and content so as to provide for
the development of practice functions consistent with program objectives.
The practice experience should provide ample opportunity for that
maturation process necessary to an understanding of disease problems,
drug therapy and their application to patients. A combination of
required and elective experiences in the clinical practice of pharmacy
should be structured with appropriate balance so as to provide a
core of professional knowledge and skills along with flexibility
which permits students to develop in accord with specialized practice
interests and to benefit from unique resources available to the
Pathophysiology and therapeutics should be studied in depth and
with adequate attention to the social and psychological aspects
of patient care.
Traditional methods of providing biomedical, pharmaceutical and
clinical science instruction should be augmented in order to provide
a meaningful understanding of systemic disease processes and diagnoses.
Students should work with patients, participate in patient care
rounds and attend clinical case conferences in various patient settings
to develop a full understanding of the therapeutic management of
Students should acquire experiences in the clinical practice of
pharmacy in the following settings: general medicine, inpatient/acute
care area; an ambulatory health care setting (e.g., family practice
centers, health maintenance organizations, and clinics); and a medical
specialty area (e.g., pediatrics, geriatrics, mental health, cardiology,
nephrology, and nutritional support).
Practice experiences should include application of clinical pharmacokinetic
principles in the development and management of dosing and should
incorporate knowledge and skills in the searching, analysis and
interpretation of drug information.
Practice experiences should be provided in enriched clinical settings.
Ambulatory care-based practice sites should provide full opportunity
to consult with and advise patients, interface with other health
professionals in the care of patients, and to participate in the
monitoring of patient therapy. In-patient care-based practice sites
should permit access to a complete patient data base and provide
opportunity to work closely in full collaboration with other health
professionals in the management of patient therapy.
A substantial experiential commitment is necessary to assure the
expected development of clinical skills and judgment and to provide
adequate time to build confidence and to foster maturation in the
clinical practice of pharmacy. The experiential activities should
assure continuity of learning experiences.
EXPERIMENTATION AND EVALUATION
Standard No. 20. Experimentation and Innovation
Experimentation and innovation within the pharmacy curriculum are
expected. Experimental or innovative approaches should be adequately
planned and coupled with an appropriate evaluation system. Colleges
or schools of pharmacy desiring to explore curricular alternatives
or other arrangements which depart from current standards should
provide assurances that quality is not adversely affected.
Particular areas expected for experimentation and innovation are
curricular design, teaching strategies, instructional materials
and delivery methods, student services, validation of new roles
and practice functions for pharmacists, and other issues important
to the continued growth and development of the profession.
The results of experimental and/or innovative programs should be
made available to other colleges and schools of pharmacy.
Standard No. 21. Evaluation
Evaluation of the professional programs is expected in order to
monitor effectiveness and to provide a studied basis for planned
change. Sufficient qualitative and quantitative information regarding
the programs should be secured which shows an ongoing program of
evaluation of outcomes consistent with stated goals and objectives.
A curriculum committee or other appropriate body should be in place
to manage an orderly and systematic review of the curriculum structure,
content and process. Defined authorities and responsibilities should
exist for this body so as to facilitate the necessary curricular
study and to formulate recommendations for faculty consideration.
Evaluation mechanisms should be designed to document the acquisition
of knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to achieve expected
performance. If both the baccalaureate in pharmacy and doctor of
pharmacy programs are offered, differentiation between respective
outcome measures should be established.
Indicators for student achievement and educational outcome that
demonstrate the success of the program in attaining its objectives
should be secured. One such indicator is graduates' performance
on standardized licensure examinations. Such scores should be among
means for curriculum evaluation. Additional outcome measures should
be sought which measure factors judged relevant to the graduate's
functioning throughout adult life.
Standard No. 22. Admission Arrangements
Students may be admitted to the baccalaureate in pharmacy or the
doctor of pharmacy program directly from high school, by transfer
from within the university, or by transfer from another post-secondary
institution, upon completion of prescribed pre-professional study
(termed prepharmacy). Students may also be admitted to a doctor
of pharmacy program after receiving a baccalaureate in pharmacy
degree from an ACPE accredited baccalaureate in pharmacy program.
Students who have not graduated from an ACPE accredited baccalaureate
in pharmacy program may be admitted to the doctor of pharmacy curriculum
provided a program of study is developed which assures that all
curricular requirements of a doctor of pharmacy program, as set
forth in Standard No. 19, will be met. Students in good standing
and eligible to continue in the college or school of pharmacy they
have been attending may be accepted for transfer with advanced standing
to another college or school of pharmacy within a framework for
providing assurances that such students will satisfy all curricular
requirements of the college or school in accord with ACPE standards
prior to the award of a professional degree.
In instances of transfer of courses, consideration for advanced
standing in the professional programs should include achievement
of a grade of C or better to satisfy requirements. Credits earned
from another college or school of pharmacy for which a grade of
C or better has been earned should ordinarily be accepted.
Standard No. 23. Criteria for Admission
The establishment of admission criteria for the professional programs
is a responsibility of the college or school of pharmacy. The college
or school of pharmacy should demonstrate its autonomy in the establishment
of admissions criteria, policies and procedures. A policy should
exist which assures non-discrimination on the basis of race, religion,
sex, or national origin. A pool of well-qualified applicants should
A recruitment program or other mechanism should be established to
provide a pool of well qualified applicants for the available positions.
Admissions decisions should give consideration not only to scholastic
accomplishments but also to other factors such as motivation, industry
and communication capabilities.
Studies of the relationship between admissions criteria and student
performance should be conducted to monitor the effectiveness of
the admissions process.
Standard No. 24. Progression of Students
The college or school of pharmacy should establish criteria and
policies and procedures for promotion as well as for academic probation,
dismissal and readmission.
Criteria, policy and procedures for progression through the program
should be published and made available to students. An ongoing monitoring
system of student performance is necessary for the early detection
of academic difficulty. Students should be informed of their academic
status, particularly when progress is unsatisfactory.
The college or school should coordinate a tutorial service for students
requiring such assistance.
Standard No. 25. Academic Advising and Personal Counseling
A college or school should meet student needs for academic advising
and for personal and career counseling.
Adequate personnel and other support should be provided by the college
or school for academic advising and career counseling. Academic
advising should include attention to outside commitments which may
interfere with academic progress. Personal counseling should be
made available through the university resources or other mechanisms.
Students should be introduced to pharmacy career pathways and their
corresponding educational or training requirements. The value of
extracurricular activities including involvement in student, professional
and social organizations should be inculcated.
Standard No. 26. Financial Assistance
The university and the college or school of pharmacy should demonstrate
that reasonable efforts have been made to assist students in obtaining
Standard No. 27. Student Records
The college or school of pharmacy should demonstrate that an ordered,
accurate and secure system of student records is maintained.
Student records must be confidentially maintained and the college
or school should be able to demonstrate that access is limited to
authorized persons. Students should be informed of right of access
to their own records.
A policy should exist with respect to providing information about
students enrolled in a college or school of pharmacy to individuals
or agencies outside the college or school or the university.
Student records should be kept in a manner which facilitates auditing
necessary to verify completion of all degree requirements.
Standard No. 28. Student Representation
The college or school should show evidence that student opinion
is sought and taken into account, and that student representation
exists on appropriate committees and other policy and decision-making
bodies of the college or school.
Ongoing student participation should be evident on select committees
and other bodies that concern themselves with matters affecting
students. For example, student participation on the curriculum committee
is expected. Students should be given the opportunity to be heard
during regular faculty meetings.
Instruments and techniques, such as student evaluation questionnaires
and exit interviews, should be employed for purposes of obtaining
student opinions of faculty, curriculum, and other aspects of the
To assure adequate communication of student opinions and perspectives,
a suitable mechanism should be established, such as a student/faculty
relations committee, student grievance committee or a student governance
Standard No. 29. Student/Faculty Relationships
An environment that is conducive to good student morale and fosters
harmonious relationships between students and faculty should exist.
Faculty should actively nurture a positive attitude about the profession
and encourage student involvement in the issues confronting the
profession. The college or school of pharmacy should assure that
its students are exposed to a broad range of professional viewpoints.
Faculty should actively encourage students to participate in professional
activities such as reading the professional literature, involvement
in professional organizations, attendance at continuing education
programs and assistance in the development of quality continuing
The college or school should broaden the horizons of students through
scheduling of guest lectures, seminars, and other curricular or
Attendance by faculty at student functions, both professional and
social, is urged as an effective means of fostering harmonious relationships.
The college or school should show evidence of efforts to insure
that students are exposed to professional ethics and standards of
practice. Before graduation, students should become professional
people who can be depended upon to place the patient's interest
above their own. Students who exhibit failure to appreciate and
accept this responsibility should be extended counseling to correct
this deficiency or be advised to seek another career.